mercredi 21 novembre 2012

History of Body Building

Athletes in 11th Century India used to lift carved stone dumbbell weights. These were called “Nals.” Oddly enough, they were very

much like modern day fitness equipment.  It is purported that gymnasiums were

existent in the same time period and by the 16th Century it is said that body building was one of India‛s favourite pastimes.

Body building was a mainstay of the athletic subculture of the ancient Greek and later Roman empires.
North Americans were first introduced to body building through the “strongman” at
travelling circus sideshows and carnivals in the middle of the 19th Century. The first modern Olympics was held in 1896 where there were two weightlifting events.

A German named Eugene Sandow is credited with inventing many of the contemporary body building techniques used even today. He began his performance with feats of
strength even adapting various “poses” that demonstrated his musculature much as modern day body builders do.

Sandow travelled to London in 1899 and opened his first “Physical Culture Studio.” A good businessman, he sold products by mail and published his own magazine. He ultimately created a “chain” of 20 studios throughout England.

Sandow is also credited with the first body building competition.  Called the “Great

Competition,” it was held on September 14, 1901. Held at the Royal Albert Hall, it was a complete sell out attracting hundreds of spectators and causing an immense traffic jam. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was one of the 3 judges.

While Sandow was busily creating his studios in England, another legend was gestating in North America.

Born in the Ozarks in 1868, Bernarr Macfadden was frail and sickly as a child. He learned as a teenager, that he could build health and strength by working outdoors.
By age 25 he was selling exercise equipment and went on to become an icon in the publishing industry building an empire based on health, fitness, nutrition and exercise publications.
Branded as eccentric, flamboyant and a “kook,” he remained fit and active up until his death in 1955. Unfortunately, his own belief in “self treatment” served to be his
undoing waiting too long for treatment of a bladder problem. Many of his principles are still practiced today and his works appear to be making a “comeback.”

Basics of Building Muscle

There are as many varied opinions on what “plan” one should follow to build muscle as there are people who have those opinions. On one thing they do agree, however. You must have a regimen.

You can begin by defining your objective. Why are you interested in body building? What do you hope to accomplish? What is your ultimate goal?

If this sounds like “Goal Setting 101,” guess what? It is! You need to clearly define your “why” before you can move on to “how.”
It‛s all about commitment and belief. There is an abundance of information about how to begin and conduct your journey, but without a burning desire to achieve, you are doomed to inevitable failure.
First things first:

Before you even think about your exercise routine...
Before you begin researching a nutritional program...

Before you shop for supplements...

Ask yourself the following questions:

Do I believe this is possible for me?

Am I willing to focus, commit and do whatever it takes?

If you answered “yes” to these two questions, the seed has been planted and you are

ready to begin.

While the details and sequential recommendations for body building vary there are some basic questions that apply to the process no matter what program you choose to


How do I build muscle?

How do I strengthen muscle?

Am I healthy enough to begin a muscle building routine?
What should I eat? How often should I eat?
Should I eat at different intervals throughout the day? Is there a specific diet for building muscle?

How many calories should I eat?
Should I take supplements?

In the following chapters we will endeavour to present you with an overview that will assist in preparing you for the launch of your muscle and body building lifestyle. It is indeed a lifestyle and you must be prepared for the rigors of change, not only to your body, but mentally as well.

You should always check with your doctor before beginning any exercise program.

Lifting too much weight (especially for people with high blood pressure) or doing too many repetitions can be extremely harmful.

Body Building Facilities

Where do you begin? Fortunately, there are more choices available today than in any other time in history. The fitness craze has opened many doors of opportunity and alternatives for the average person seeking a healthier lifestyle. This is a serendipity for the serious body builder. The “corner gym” is fast becoming as popular as the “corner pub.”
There was a time when the only “equipment” a serious body builder had were barbells

and benches. Often a trip to the gym meant entering a dark, cave-like atmosphere in a less than desirable area of larger cities. By contrast, the gyms of today are usually bright, cheerful, open facilities boasting the latest in equipment and amenities. You can find them in the most upscale neighborhoods and double as popular meeting and greeting places.

Most offer a variety of membership packages and many will offer a brief trial period allowing you to “test” the facility to determine if it meets your needs.

When you do make a decision to join a fitness facility, there are a number of points

to consider.
Choosing a quality fitness facility or health club requires caution. The following
guidelines can help:

·       Shop around. Ask friends, coworkers, and your physician for recommendations.

·       Call several clubs to find ones that match your interests and budget.

·       Check with the Better Business Bureau for reliability reports on clubs you are considering.

·       Visit the club at the time of day you will use it.

·       Talk to members and staff.

·       Are the hours and location convenient?

·       Does the club have facilities and services that suit your needs?

·       Are the equipment, exercise areas, and locker rooms clean and well-maintained?

·       Is the facility overcrowded?

·       Does the club limit new membership to prevent future crowding?

·       Is the atmosphere friendly?

·       What are the qualifications of the staff?

·       Do they have appropriate education and training?
·       Do they take an interest in and assist with individual goals and progress?

·       Carefully consider the contract. Take a copy home to read thoroughly before signing. Stay away from clubs that pressure you to sign on the spot!
·       Does the contract list all services and facilities? All oral promises should be written down.

·       What is the total cost and payment schedule, including enrolment fees and finance charges?

·       Do some services cost extra?

·       How long is a membership term? A short-term membership is usually best in case you find yourself unmotivated or the club closes.

·       Does the contract allow for a try-out period? Will the trial fee be applicable to longer-term membership?

·       What are your cancellation and refund rights if you move, become disabled, or the club closes?

·       Does a three-day cancellation policy apply if you change your mind shortly after signing up?
 Finally, never sign up with a club that has not yet opened despite any special discounts. And beware if the club asks for your credit card number or deposit check before you have read the contract.

Dietary Supplements

If you expected to find a list of recommended dietary supplements, you will not find it here. Requirements for supplementation is unique to every individual and that includes bodybuilders.
We will give you some “food for thought.”
Magazines, web sites and other publications that present certain supplements as the “be all and end all” for good nutrition are usually funded and/or sponsored by companies that manufacture. . .guess what? Yep, supplements. Our position is that right or wrong, any information that is presented by an entity funded by such
companies presents a genuine conflict of interest.

It is for that reason that we recommend that you take your advice on supplements from your personal physician or a licensed dietician who is familiar with sports wellness and the bodybuilder lifestyle.

As a bodybuilder you are told that supplements can help you to gain weight, build

muscles and in strength training. There is no “magic pill” that will guarantee results, yet there are thousands of advertisements making truly outrageous claims. The truth is that no amount of supplements is a replacement for a healthy, nutritious


Again, our recommendation is to consult with your physician, do your own research and due diligence before adding supplements to your daily regimen.
If you determine that dietary supplements are appropriate for you, and you don‛t feel the importance of consulting with your physician or dietician, there are some guidelines you can use to insure that you are ingesting exactly what you are purchasing.
In the United States, The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has stringent laws
about packaging guidelines for supplements. Some things you should follow when shopping for supplements include what the packaging must show:

Name of the product Quantity

Directions for use

Supplement facts panel (serving size, amount, and active ingredient.

Other ingredients

Name and address of maker, packer or distributor. Write to this address for more product information.


Narcotics and dangerous drugs, including anabolic steroids, are prohibited entry and there are severe penalties if imported.

What about Steroids

No discussion of bodybuilding would be complete without addressing anabolic steroids and, just as important, their so-called alternatives.

Barely a day goes by that you don‛t hear about yet another well-known athletic exposed as a user of steroids. Use of steroids for the purpose of bodybuilding or
other sports related enhancement is illegal in the United States.

Anabolic steroids are considered a “controlled substance” and any unlawful use is punishable by law. Period. We won‛t discuss this further here.

Unfortunately, there are a disreputable few who have managed to find other chemicals that perform in a similar way but are not “technically” anabolic steroids. This is very dangerous practice. Some of those alternatives include prescriptions,

veterinary, investigational, unapproved drugs and some dietary supplements.

Those described as dietary supplements can be very dangerous as they are regulated as foods instead of drugs. Because of this, there is no information to substantiate

their use by bodybuilders nor any data on short or long term effects.

It is very easy to be defrauded by some of these so-called supplements. They can make claims that lead the bodybuilder to believe that they will accomplish miracles lie building muscle, promoting testosterone and so on. The truth is they do not.
In fact the government conducted a 10 year study and collected more than 3,000 drug samples over the “black market.”
What they found was that many of the samples were not steroids at all, but other potentially more dangerous, prescription drugs.

The sad thing is that many of these are popular among teenagers.
Here is a list of some potential health effects of drugs and other substances-ranging from the mildest to the most severe-used as alternatives to anabolic steroids:

·       greasy skin

·       headache

·       severe acne

·       premature balding

·       bloating associated with water retention

·       dizziness

·       drowsiness

·       nausea

·       muscle tremors

·       fast heart rate

·       slowed heart rate
 ·       bloody diarrhea

·       seizure-like movements

·       lowered blood pressure

·       breathing difficulty

·       breathing cessation

·       blood clots

·       cardiovascular problems

·       liver disease

·       cancer

·       heart attack

·       stroke

·       death